Atopic Dermatitis (atopic eczema)

Atopic Dermatitis (atopic eczema) is the most common form of eczema, a condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked.

Atopic eczema is more common in children, often developing before their first birthday. However, it may also develop for the first time in adults.

It's usually a long-term (chronic) condition, although it can improve significantly, or even clear completely, in some children as they get older.

Microbiome in the Gut-Skin Axis in Atopic Dermatitis

The microbiome is vital for immune system development and homeostasis. Changes in microbial composition and function, dysbiosis, in the skin and the gut have been linked to alterations in immune responses and to the development of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD).

Does the gut microbiome have an impact on AD?

The gut microbiome might play a crucial role in the development of AD by regulating immune system maturation through cross-talk between the microbiome and the host, especially in early life. Alterations in the gut microbiome affect the immune system balance via the production of metabolites, which can cause an inflamed microenvironment in the presence of specific microbiome in the gut. The established dysbiosis of the gut microbiome combined with the immune system imbalance persists into adulthood and thereby contributes to the natural courses of diseases, such as AD.

AD is a common clinical manifestation that involves 2 major biological pathways: intestinal barrier dysfunction and immune response.

The barrier dysfunction is closely related to microbiome dysbiosis. The barrier dysfunction may be the reason of immune responses leading to AD.

Perspectives

The roles played by the gut and skin microbiome have recently been revisited and abundant evidence suggests that host-microbiome interactions can actually determine the status of health and AD.

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